Mental health issues are extremely common, with around 20% of adults in the U.S. experiencing some form of mental illness each year. Despite how common mental health struggles are, however, many people still don’t receive treatment due to a variety of barriers that include:
- Cost. The high cost of mental health treatment poses significant barriers to access for many people in need. Services are often not covered by insurance at levels comparable to physical health despite the prevalence of mental health conditions. Out-of-pocket expenses like copays and deductibles can be prohibitive. For the uninsured, self-paying for therapy, psychiatric care, and medications is usually unaffordable. Low-income individuals and families may be forced to choose between mental health treatment and other necessities.
- Provider shortage. The lack of mental health professionals is another major obstacle to accessing needed mental health services. According to New American Economy, 60% of all counties in the United States do not have even one psychiatrist. Shortages are even more pronounced in rural areas and for child psychiatrists. Providers are often unable to take new patients or have long waitlists due to high caseloads, and people with mental health emergencies face very limited options.
- Stigma. The stigma surrounding mental illness persists as a major barrier to accessing mental health care. Negative attitudes and beliefs that label people with mental health conditions as dangerous, incompetent, or weak can make them reluctant to acknowledge issues and seek help. Stigma also leads to discrimination that isolates and excludes people with mental illness from society. Within some cultural groups, deeply rooted stigma may prevent open conversation about mental health. Fear of judgment from friends, family, and employers also deters people from getting treatment. This stigma prevents early intervention and allows conditions to worsen.
- Lack of awareness. Limited public awareness and understanding of mental health issues creates barriers to people accessing care. Many people are unable to recognize signs and symptoms of common mental health conditions like anxiety, depression, and substance misuse. Additionally, some populations such as the elderly, low-income groups, racial/ethnic minorities, and rural communities have lower mental health literacy. They may not know how to navigate the mental health care system, what treatment options are available, or how to get affordable care.
- Social and economic factors. Social determinants of health including education, housing, transportation, and community resources may also play a role in access to mental health services. People living in poverty face barriers like limited transportation or childcare options to enable them to seek care . Homelessness or inadequate housing can make it difficult to obtain and sustain mental health care. Discrimination and distrust of the health system can also limit care seeking among marginalized groups.
Leveraging Digital Tools
The emergence of new digital tools and technologies presents unique opportunities to reduce barriers and increase access to much-needed mental health services. From smart phone apps to telemedicine platforms, digital mental health solutions can break down traditional barriers to care like cost, availability of providers, stigma, lack of awareness, and social and economic factors.
For example, digital mental health programs and mobile health apps enable users to conveniently access education, tracking tools, counseling, peer support, and other resources from anywhere. Teletherapy makes it possible to receive video counseling sessions from home. Digital programs tailored to specific conditions, demographics, and risk levels allow for more personalized mental health support.
Research shows digital mental health technologies effectively increase care access for rural and underserved populations. While not a full replacement for in-person care, incorporating these innovative digital health strategies into the broader mental health system can help close the mental health access gap by expanding reach, improving convenience, lowering costs, personalizing support, and preserving in-person care for those that need it most.
Expanding Online Care Options
Digital tools are making mental health care more convenient and accessible. Teletherapy, which was widely adopted during the pandemic, and online self-directed mental health programs greatly reduce obstacles that traditionally have prevented many people from accessing care. The remote nature of these digital tools eliminates transportation barriers and mobility limitations, while expanding the pool of available therapists beyond just local providers.
Virtual sessions can also be offered at more flexible hours outside standard business times. Additionally, digital solutions are more cost-and improve affordability. The privacy and anonymity of care via video chat or mental health apps helps lessen the stigma around seeking treatment.
The convenience, flexibility, and privacy provided by digital solutions encourage more people to start therapy or other needed mental health interventions.
Lowering Cost Barriers
Providers can offer teletherapy and online programs at lower prices by eliminating expenses related to office space and administrative overhead. Out-of-pocket costs to patients are also mitigated since online services do not require travel and can be covered through insurance benefits.
Digital mental health programs can also help prevent the need for more costly care down the line, as convenient access and early screening facilitate early intervention before mental health concerns escalate and require expensive medications or emergency care.
Digital innovations will continue to make quality mental health care more economically accessible as more health systems, employers, and health plans integrate digital mental health services.
More Equitable Access to Support
Digital mental health solutions make getting help and information more equitable. For example, free screening tools like Mental Health America allow people to self-evaluate symptoms and determine if they should seek treatment. Other online resources provide education on mental illnesses, self-care strategies, treatment options, and how to get urgently needed support.
Tools that address barriers like transportation, cost, and provider shortages in rural/remote areas can connect more people to care. Identity-specific peer support groups and culturally competent apps empower minorities to access relevant help.
Overcoming Stigma Through Anonymity
The stigma surrounding mental illness and seeking treatment often deters individuals from getting the help they need. Digital mental health tools provide more anonymity so they can help reduce stigma-related barriers. The privacy of virtual counseling compared to in-office therapy may also alleviate stigma. Email- or text-based counseling provides an additional layer of anonymity that encourages more people to access care.
The privacy afforded by digital mental health solutions creates a safe environment where people feel more comfortable pursuing treatment without fear of stigma or shame.
Transforming Mental Health Care
Despite the potential of digital tools to improve access to mental health services, they remain underutilized for several key reasons. A general lack of awareness of their existence limits uptake by those in need. Some skepticism about the efficacy of digital mental health versus traditional in-person therapy persists, though emerging research is proving online options can be very effective.
Digital innovation can transform mental health care to be more equitable, affordable, and accessible. Self-directed online programs, clinician coaching via text, email, or phone, virtual counseling, online support groups, and other applications are removing traditional barriers to quality care.
Digital tools provide new pathways to support for disadvantaged groups. Technology solutions allow mental health treatment to reach more people in need in a way that is accessible, convenient, and effective.